Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) (also known as “tooth in eye” surgery) is a medical procedure to restore vision in the most severe cases of corneal and ocular surface patients. It includes removal of a tooth from the patient or a donor. After removal, a lamina of tissue cut from the tooth is drilled and the hole is fitted with optics. The lamina is grown in the patients’ cheek for a period of months and then is implanted upon the eye. The procedure was pioneered by the Italian ophthalmic surgeon Professor Benedetto Strampelli in the early 1960s.
The messiest brain dissection ever.
That something as fragile as this is responsible for our entire existence probably makes some poetic statement about the frailty of life, the narrow parameters that allow it to exist and the union between extinction and proliferation in an ever changing, evolving world.
It can also be crumbed and deep fried.
The brain is organised into, very basically, grey and white matter (which is about all you can see here considering my heavy handedness destroyed just about every other structure). Grey matter is made up of neurone cell bodies and white matter is made up of myelinated axons. The white colour is a product of the myelin sheathing which is produced by a supporting ‘glial’ cell called an oligodendrocyte. Myelin acts as an insulator which is deposited intermittently along an axon, it forces an action potential to ‘jump’ between un-myelinated portions of the axon; dramatically speeding up transmission from ~1 metre a second to ~100 metres a second.
A loss of myelin is associated with Multiple Sclerosis, where the brain loses its ability to transmit these high speed action potentials and as a result, brain function declines almost universally.
The Peritoneal Cavity - This isn’t human (obviously) but i’m going to talk as though it was.
Mainly occupied by the business end of the digestive tract, the peritoneal cavity is the serous fluid filled space below the diaphragm. It includes the stomach, gall bladder, liver, small and large intestine and rectum.
The cavity itself is defined as the space between the visceral and parietal peritoneum, which are the epithelial linings on the outer surface of the organs and the inner surface of the body cavity respectively. The two peritoneums are actually one continuous membrane, into which the organs have invaginated.
The peritoneal cavity is susceptible to infections, a vulnerability that it owes in part to the way the organs sit within it. Wells and troughs are generated where the peritoneal fluid can’t flow, if bacteria access these areas they can multiply undisturbed and inflame portions of the cavity, a disorder known as peritonitis.
Peritonitis can be caused by contaminated water entering the peritoneum. Women are more susceptible to this than men due to the nature of their reproductive tract, which is essentially an unprotected opening. Should water enter this opening with any great momentum, say for instance; stacking while water skiing, contaminants may enter the peritoneal space via the fallopian tubes, which open into the peritoneum (they’re not actually attached directly to the ovaries). Ova must transverse the cleft between the two structures in order to be fertilised in the fallopian tubes.
Ectopic pregnancies are facilitated by the same gap between the ovary and the fallopian tube.
So if you’re ever waterskiing… Maybe bikinis aren’t the best choice.
Tetracycling staining of the teeth. Tetracycline is an antibiotic medication designed to fight bacterial infections. Prior to the 1980s, this widely used antibiotic was often given to pregnant women or children under the age of 8 whose teeth were not fully developed. The resulting discoloration can affect an entire tooth, or can form horizontal stain bands—almost like stripes—that can range from light to very dark.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the cornea of an eye
Photo Credit: DR M.A. ANSARY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
This is the lens.
I think they might need that.
This is a nice illustration of the muscular properties of the iris, it’s pretty flexible, a property that it owes to its high elastin content. There’s something about the glassy, static isolation of the eye that keeps its structures a mystery - not everyone would guess the exact texture and malleability of its components.
The small intestine with a clear filmy attachment called mesentery. Mesentery is very highly vascularised, although most of what we can see here is avascular, it provides the intestines with nutrients as well as carrying the diffused nutrients from our food, to the liver for processing.
The small intestine itself is full of little finger-like structures called villi which have a couple of functions; one of the main functions is diffusion, which is mediated by a cell called an Enterocyte. Enterocytes are the most abundant cell in the epithelium of the small intestine; they line the villi, allowing nutrients and water to diffuse across their surface into the lamina propria, which is the core of the villi, where they hook up with the vessels that run through the mesentery to the liver. The other cells in the epithelium of the villi are secretery; goblet cells secrete mucous which helps to trap food borne viruses and harmful bacteria so that it can be dealt with by our immune system, and paneth cells secrete lysosymes into the lumen, meaning that they have a bactericidal role, however, they also secrete growth factors and thus, act as nurse cells to the stem cell populations in the intestines. The interesting thing about the intestinal epithelium is how well it regenerates; each finger has a trough associated with it called a crypt, and it’s in these crypts that you can find stem cells. They’re constantly dividing and migrating upwards to replace the cells which are sloughed off at the top of the villi, like an escalator. There’s always a new cell ready to replace the old one.
Knowing this shit is only useful if you’re studying for the DEV midsem - am i right or am i right?
Craniopagus twins, this phenomena is the result of an improper separation of the early, developing embryo. Normally, or as normally as an abnormal separation of an embryo can be, each half of the developing embryo would have separated entirely, resulting in identical twins; that didn’t happen here, instead parts of the skull, the meninges (three layers of tissue that lie between the brain and the skull, from deep to superficial they are the pia mater, the arachnoid mater and the dura mater) and sometimes even the brain is shared between the twins.